Thursday, September 18, 2014

The Art of City Directory Advertisements


In this advertisement for a tailor in the 1882 Schenectady City Directory, the entrepreneur boasts that he is "the" tailor in town. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 


City directories are commercially published compilations of the names, addresses, and professions of people in a city. For history enthusiasts, directories provide a treasure trove of information about a community at a specific time. They are a tremendous resource for a number of research purposes, from genealogical and biographical research, to house history research, to a researching the history of a community, neighborhood, or ethnic enclave.


This page of advertisements from the 1862 Schenectady directory features a variety of typefaces, in addition to illustrations, to draw the eye. Advertisers in nineteenth-century directories were more apt to use a variety of dramatic typefaces, rather than images, to promote businesses. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 


Advertisement for the Schenectady Lyceum and Academy, a school for boys, in the 1842 Schenectady directory. the 1842 directory was the first directory to be produced for the city. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 


The advertisements featured in city directories are also useful. They not only document the businesses and services that existed in a community -- sometimes highlighting long-gone industries; advertisements in directories also provide a look at the art and style of advertising during a particular era.

This advertisement from the 1925 city directory is an early example of a directory illustration that uses a cartoonish drawing style, in contrast to more realistic drawing styles. Cartoon images are infrequent in the directories, but can be found starting in the 1920s. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 


While many advertisements in directories focus on sellers of goods, advertisements also focused on services in the community. One example is this advertisement in the 1933 Schenectady directory for the insurance company Ter Bush & Powell. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 

The iconic style of the 1950s can be seen in this advertisement for the Schenectady Engraving Company, from the 1952 Schenectady directory. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 


This blog entry features a number of advertisements from Schenectady city directories from the mid-nineteenth century to the late twentieth century. In their language and imagery, they give modern viewers a peek into Schenectady's past, and we can compare the advertising of yesteryear to the advertising of today.

This advertisement for the Chamber of Commerce in Schenectady from the 1952 Schenectady directory is unusual in its use of two colors of ink. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 

Photographs included in advertisements in directories are useful. Many images show the front of local businesses; a few show the interiors of businesses, such as this interesting image from the interior of Alling Rubber Company in State Street in Schenectady. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 


Interested in exploring city directories in the holdings of the Grems-Doolittle Library? You can find a complete list of the directories in our holdings by clicking this link. To begin your research, visit our Library or contact our Librarian.

This ad for the Schenectady Gazette appeared in the 1980 directory. Many of the ads in the 1980s directories target advertisers in addition to consumers. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 

Full-page advertisement for the Teller & Sanford hardware store in downtown Schenectady in the 1906 Schenectady directory. Image from the collections of the Grems-Doolittle Library. 



Thursday, September 11, 2014

Schenectady County Cemetery Records


Undated photograph of Vale Cemetery in Schenectady, taken from a glass plate negative. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 

Schenectady County contains a number of cemeteries and burial grounds, from large cemeteries such as Vale Cemetery to small family burial plots that were once part of local farms.

The earliest known burial ground in the area appears on a 1698 map of Schenectady by Wolfgang Romer. The small plot was situated just east of the intersection of Front Street and Church Street, and ran along the south side of Front Street. This plot may have also been where bodies were buried after the Schenectady Massacre in 1690. Unfortunately, records of the people buried in this earliest cemetery have not survived.


These skeletons were unearthed from the grounds of a Front Street home in 1902, in an area were the earliest known burial ground in Schenectady was once located. Newspapers of the time suggested that the skeletons were the remains of some of the victims of the Schenectady Massacre. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 

During the 18th and early 19th century, most burial grounds in American towns and cities were located in churchyards (such as the cemetery of St. George's Church on Ferry Street in the Stockade neighborhood in Schenectady) or near the center of town (such as the Green Street Cemetery in Schenectady, which was situated between Front Street and Green Street in Schenectady). Meanwhile, in rural areas, church burial grounds were common, as were family burial plots on local farms.


The graveyard at First Presbyterian Church in Schenectady can be found on the church's property, next to the church building. Another early Schenectady church, St. George's, is also home to a small graveyard. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection.  


Over time, the overcrowding of graves and emerging sanitation laws in cities and towns led to the rural cemetery movement. Instead of graveyards placed in city centers, new cemeteries were established on the outskirts of communities. In contrast to the simple design of graveyards, these "garden cemeteries" often featured meandering paths, creeks, art and statuary, and areas for picnicking. Cemeteries were intended not only as places to bury the dead, but also as a place for recreation. In line with these developments, Vale Cemetery was established in 1857. Burials in the Green Street Cemetery were soon after disinterred and were transferred to Vale, and the former cemetery land between Front and Green Streets was developed as residential property.


Colorful postcards promoting Vale Cemetery as a pleasant, peaceful place for recreation and relaxation were popular in the early years of the twentieth century. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Postcard Collection. 


Cemetery records can be helpful to genealogy researchers in establishing dates of birth, marriage, and death, and in connecting the generations of a family. Epitaphs and designs on a headstone can also give a genealogy researcher information about an ancestor's religious background, military service, membership in fraternal organizations, or even his or her occupation.  By studying the names, epitaphs, and ages of people buried, and by examining the placement, landscape, and architecture of cemeteries and burial grounds, local history researchers can learn about epidemics and disease, lifespans, wealth and status, ethnic groups, cultural practices, and a number of other topics related to a community's history. Analyzing the information found on headstones and monuments can also illuminate a community's beliefs regarding death, religion, family, childhood, and old age.


A tree has grown up close between headstones in a small family cemetery in Duanesburg. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection.

The Grems-Doolittle Library has several printed collections of cemetery records. These records, usually compiled from information on headstones, focuses on information about individuals. Headstone inscriptions are generally included in these records. A complete list of Schenectady County cemetery records in our holdings can be found by clicking this link. Clipping files, photographs, maps, city directories, and postcard collections in our holdings also provide contextual information about local cemeteries and burial grounds. If you have questions about using cemetery records for your research or are seeking information about local cemeteries, please visit our library or contact our Librarian.



Friday, August 29, 2014

School Days from Schenectady County's Past


Students at their desks in a classroom at Elmer Avenue School in Schenectady, ca. 1910. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 


For many people in the United States, Labor Day is the unofficial end of summer. For kids and teenagers in Schenectady County, school starts within a day or two after the holiday. In celebration of the return of school days (coming right around the corner!), we're highlighting images of school days from Schenectady County's past.

Interested in learning more about Schenectady County's past in photographs? Visit our Library or contact our Librarian.


Students congregate around Bigsbee School in Rotterdam in this 1953 photo. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 


Students slated to graduate from the Union Classical Institute, a Schenectady high school, pose elegantly in this 1878 photograph. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 


Students at Mohawk School in Scotia participate in a school play in this photograph from the 1950s. Image from Larry Hart Collection. 


Teacher Delta Relyea and her pupils pose outside of the Glenville District #7 schoolhouse at the corner of Swaggertown Road and Spring Road in this photo ca. 1910. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 


Children line up to enjoy the slide at the Edison School in Schenectady in this undated photo. image from Larry Hart Collection. 


The 1911 Schenectady High School girls' basketball team poses for their yearbook photo. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 


This 1954 photo shows the A.M. Kindergarten class at Van Corlaer Elementary School in Schenectady. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 


Students from grades 5, 6, and 7 at the Zion Lutheran Church private school in Schenectady pose with an instructor outside their school building in this 1917 photograph. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 

Thursday, August 21, 2014

"No Roughnecks Allowed": The Schenectady Newsboys' Association

This 1916 photo shows the members of the Schenectady Newsboys' Association Fife and Drum Corps. The Fife and Drum Corps was first organized in April 1916 with 35 boys from the Newsboys' Association. By the following year, the group had grown to 58. During World War I, the Schenectady Newsboys' Association Fife and Drums Corps marched in uniform in patriotic and military parades. Image from the Larry Hart Collection. 


Around the turn of the twentieth century, local boys sold newspapers on Schenectady's city streets. In Schenectady, as in cities around the country, these boys and young men, known as "newsboys" or "newsies," were one of the main distribution means of newspapers to the public. Newsboys did not work for one particular newspaper, but were independent agents who purchased newspapers from the publishers and sold them around the city. Since they were not allowed to return unsold papers to the publisher, newsboys worked hard to sell all of their newspapers and make a profit. Boys protected their territories and competed vigorously, especially for the potential customers who headed to work at G.E. each day. Maria Giacchini, whose father was a newsboy in Schenectady, shared her recollections of her father's stories of his newsboy days: "I recall his telling of early morning routine, rising at 4:00 a.m. trying not to disturb the rest of the family while getting ready to leave the house to sell papers in the streets. When he sold all his papers, the highlight of the morning was to use some of the profit he had earned from the half-cent per paper return and stop at the baker shop for a piece of pie or a doughnut ... He gave the rest of his earnings to his mother, but she would always check his pockets to be sure he didn't forget to give it all to her."


A small group of Schenectady newsboys sell papers in the afternoon - after school hours - in this February 1910 photograph. Photograph by Lewis Wickes Hine. Image from the records of the National Child Labor Committee, in the collections of the Library of Congress


In 1910 in Schenectady, boys as young as 10 were permitted to sell papers during the day. Teenage boys age 14 and older could sell at night. Girls under the age of 16 were barred from selling newspapers altogether. Each newsboy under the age of 14 was required to register with the Schenectady Superintendent of Schools and wear a badge proving he was registered. The law changed in January 1914, raising the minimum age for newsboys to 12 and permitting only boys age 14 and older to sell papers before 6:00 a.m. or after 8:00 a.m. Regardless of the law, some of the boys were as young as 8 when they began to sell papers. In 1914, the Secretary of the Schenectady's Board of Education reported that there were nearly 1,000 registered newsboys in the city.

The loud calls of the newsies advertising papers for sale could be heard throughout the city at all hours, a feature of city life that often prompted complaints. An article dated December 14, 1911 in the Schenectady Gazette reported, "a number of complaints have been received of the many boys who [at late hours] are on the streets at night selling newspapers. They gather about the waiting room [of the downtown trolley station] and other public places and cause considerable annoyance to pedestrians and persons waiting for cars." Other articles in local newspapers noted the complaints of Schenectadians about the shouts of newsboys on Sunday mornings in particular.


Undated National Newsboys Association membership card of Clarence White. The mission of the organization was the self-improvement of the young men; it eventually evolved into the Boys and Girls Club that exists today. By signing the membership card, a boy certifies that "he does not approve of swearing, lying, stealing, gambling, drinking intoxicating liquors or smoking cigarettes" and as such is entitled to "the respect and esteem of the public." Image from Larry Hart Collection.


Although on the whole newsboys were simply hard-working young people trying to help their families survive, they were characterized nationwide in the public mind as loud, ill-behaved, unruly boys who caused trouble, fought, and stole. Max Hutten, who at age 95 recalled his days as a turn-of-the-century newsboy, allowed that this characterization was not entirely off-base. "In those days, the newsboys were pretty rough," Hutten told Daily Gazette reporter Patrick Kurp in 1996. "We were kind of a gang, but we just fought with our fists. We didn't fight with guns like they do today."

In July 1915, Police Justice John J. McMullen founded the Schenectady Newsboys' Association to curb the city's youth street gangs. The police and city officials hoped to redirect these young men and give them harmless outlets for their energy. A July 19, 1915 editorial in the Schenectady Gazette posited that the organization was an excellent idea: "It should at the very least have a strong influence toward preventing various petty misdemeanors among the boys. As a means of keeping the members out of trouble it is by no means as unimportant as it may seem at first thought." The writer of the editorial further asserted that in running the organization, the boys would also learn "citizenship on a small scale."

Portrait of John J. McMullen, the local judge who was instrumental in the founding of the Schenectady Newsboys' Association. Image from History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925, edited by Nelson Greene. Accessed via the Schenectady Digital History Archive.


The Schenectady Newsboys' Association began formally on July 23, 1915, with 28 boys in its membership. The 15-year-old president of the organization, Joseph Guarnier, remarked upon the creation of the group, "we will try to show that boys can rule themselves as well as grown people, and perhaps better ... We are going to cut out all gambling, swearing, cheating, and slang, and show the grown-ups how to act." The initial slogan of the organization was reported as being "No Roughnecks Allowed"; it would soon change to "Honesty -- Honor". A week after its formation, membership swelled to 91 and would rise to 125 by mid-September of 1915. At its peak in 1917, the organization had 225 members. In its earliest months, the organization met in the State Street clubrooms of the Women's Political Union, a local women's suffrage group, who also sponsored parties and entertainment for the boys. In September, members of the local Carpenters' Union stepped in to create space for the boys in the basement of the YMCA building, which was then at the corner of State Street and Ferry Street. Over the years, the boys added a Victrola, pool table, punching bag, and other amusements to their space. The YWCA remained the meeting place and lounge for the Newsboys' Association members until 1921, when the YMCA moved to its lower State Street location and the Newsboys' Association lost its meeting space. Having no regular place to meet, the group soon disbanded.


The first Christmas Dinner of the Schenectady Newsboys' Association, held in December 1915. Image from Larry Hart Collection. 


In the weeks following the establishment of the Newsboys' Association in 1915, articles began to appear in local newspapers citing the integrity of the newsboys in returning lost items to their owners and in breaking up fights. Newsboys were also reported as standing up for their rights. When a customer rudely snatched a paper from a newsboy and tossed a penny to the ground, another newsboy stood in the path of the customer, looked him in the eye, and said, "I beg your pardon." The customer picked up the penny, handed it to the newsboy he had treated badly, and apologized to him. In another case, members of the Schenectady Newsboys' Association chased down a fellow newsboy who had stolen a customer's change and forced him to return it. "We won't stand for any crooks among the newsboys of this city," said the organization's vice-president, Julius Goldstein, to a Gazette reporter following the incident. "Almost all the boys are honest, but any of them who tries any underhanded work is going to be punished. Every newsboy in the city has got to give the people a square deal or there will be trouble." The organization also established a peer court to address mischief and petty crimes among the newsboy ranks. One year after the formation of the group, an article in the Schenectady Gazette reflected on the first year of the existence of the Newsboys' Association: "through help given by the members of the association, Police Judge McMullen has been enabled to break up several gangs of unruly boys, who had in the past consistently committed various acts of vandalism, and now the city can boast of having one of the finest lot of newsboys of any city in the state." In addition to regulating the behavior of the newsboys, the Schenectady Newsboys' Association also provided a means for fun and recreation. The Newsboys' Association held numerous sports events, picnics, dinners, and camping trips, and visited local amusement parks. They participated in local parades and celebrations. The organization also created its own Fife and Drum Corps.

When Judge John McMullen died in March 1944, his obituary in the Schenectady Gazette highlighted his work in establishing the Schenectady Newsboys' Association. Articles claimed that the Newsboys' Association was "instrumental in the lowering of the juvenile delinquency rate in the city," and said of the newsboys that had grown into men that "many members of the original club now hold important positions in the professions and in business and industry." The pallbearers selected for McMullen's funeral were all former members of the Newsboys' Association. Although the organization lasted less than ten years, it surely shaped the lives of hundreds of local boys as they grew into men.

Thursday, August 14, 2014

Schenectady Musicians: A Look Back

The Schenectady Italian Band poses for this photo taken ca. 1910. The ethnic fraternal organizations that proliferated from the late 19th century to the mid-20th century emphasized social activities, and the array of dances, dinners, picnics, parades, and other celebrations they held often featured music. The Schenectady Italian Band played in the area for over 20 years before changing their name to the Western Gateway Band. Image from Larry Hart Collection. 


Music has been a part of community life in Schenectady County for as long as humans have inhabited the area. Music is a valuable means for people to communicate, educate, entertain, explore creativity, tell stories, preserve cultural traditions, ease the burdens of work, enhance events such as weddings, parades, and dances, motivate troops at war, and simply for fun and pleasure. Featured here are a number of images from our photograph collections that showcase music and musicians in Schenectady County.

Interested in learning more about Schenectady County's past in photographs? Visit our Library or contact our Librarian.


Salvation Army musicians perform on State Street in Schenectady in December 1986 to kick off their holiday season fundraising efforts. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 

This photograph from June of 1925 shows Kalteux's Collegians playing at the dance pavilion in Schenectady's Central Park. A note on the back of the photograph shares a recollection of the concerts they played:  "That was the in the days of 10 cents a dance. The Union rate of the orchestra was $8.00 per night from 9:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m. Three tough hours playing with no intermission. Any other night was $5.00 per man for three hours." Image from Larry Hart Collection. 

A crowd gathers around a band performing in front of the Hotel Vendome on State Street in Schenectady, ca. 1895. One brazen boy has inserted himself into the middle of the circle of musicians to get a better view. Image from Larry Hart Collection. 

Family bands were very popular and common in the early part of the 20th century, both for simple evenings at home and to share music with others. In this 1901 photo, members of the Wilson family pose with their instruments. From left to right are father Randall Wicks Wilson and his sons Byron Wilson, Archie Wilson, and Morris Wilson. The family lived on Shannon Street in the Bellevue neighborhood in Schenectady. The daughter of Byron Wilson wrote on the back of the photo that the family musical group "discontinued interest when jazz made its appearance." Image from Larry Hart Collection. 

The Schenectady City Band poses on the lawn at Union College in this photograph, taken ca. 1890. The Schenectady City Band is mentioned in local newspapers as early as 1865, the year that they played an Independence Day celebration in Schenectady. In addition to playing at local events, city and town band often traveled throughout the region to entertain in other locales. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Photograph Collection. 

A German-American sextet plays music at the corner of State Street and Western Parkway in 1911. Around the turn of the twentieth century, some Schenectadians objected to street musicians and saw them as a nuisance. Commentary decrying the street musicians appeared in local newspapers around the turn of the century. Such articles and letters often employed a xenophobic tone, characterizing street musicians as low-class, ignorant, and unmistakably "foreign." Image from Larry Hart Collection. 

The Schenectady Symphony Orchestra poses on the stage of Mont Pleasant High School in this photograph, taken in February of 1936. The Schenectady Symphony Orchestra was a new organization at that time, having given their first concert a year earlier. Nearly 80 years later, the organization is still in existence today. The people playing in the orchestra include paid professional musicians and non-paid amateur musicians. Image from Larry Hart Collection. 

The Niskayuna Band poses in front of the Niskayuna Reformed Church in this 1902 photo. Image from Larry Hart Collection. 

Friday, August 8, 2014

Schenectady's Riverside Park

Picture postcard of Riverside Park, ca. 1915. Image from Grems-Doolittle Library Postcard Collection. 


Riverside Park, which lies along the Mohawk River north of Schenectady's Stockade neighborhood, was established during the administration of George Lunn, the city's first and only Socialist Mayor. Riverside Park was established in 1913, as were many of Schenectady's other parks, including Central Park, Pleasant Valley Park, and Hillhurst Park.


Winter fun in Riverfront Park, ca. 1920, as seen from the bridge that used to run between the foot of Washington Avenue and Scotia. Image from Grems-Doolittle library Photograph Collection. 


As Schenectady's new parks were created, city residents suggested a variety of names for the new parks. The Schenectady Gazette collected suggestions and published them during the spring of 1914. Suggested names for Riverside Park included Mohawk Park, Uncas, Handalaer Park, The Strand, Washington Park, The Esplanade, Iroquois Terrace, Governor's Garden, Western Gateway Park, Electric City Park, Edgewater Park, Erie Park, Beach Park, Bouwlandts, and Holland Park. The park was officially named Riverside Park in December 1914. Its official name was changed to Rotundo Park in 1949 to honor Dominick Rotundo, a member of the Schenectady County Board of Supervisors who died that year. While this name change was official, it didn't catch on with the public, and in 1999 the name of the park was changed again -- officially -- to Riverside Park.


Silhouettes of parkgoers can be seen in this view of Riverside Park in the 1920s. Image from Larry Hart Collection. 


In his 1919 report, Park Superintendent Daniel J. Sweeney lauded the establishment of a playground in Riverside Park, emphasizing that the municipal playground "not only stimulates interest and develops understanding and skill, but advances the physical and moral growth of the individual, brings the individuals participating closer together and facilitates unity of purposed and action. It also eliminates the unclean and unfair practice of the unguided and undeveloped youth." He also described his recommendations for the further development of Riverside Park, including the installation of a merry-go-round and swimming pool, and that the city should acquire land adjacent to the park to build a baseball diamond.

This undated view of the entrance to Riverside Park at the foot of Washington Avenue shows a much narrower footpath than the path that currently runs through the park. Image from Grems-Doolittle library Photograph Collection. 


The history of the cannon in Riverside Park is a mystery, and was a mystery even when the cannon was moved to the park in 1919 at the request of Stockade residents. Prior to its being in Riverside Park, the cannon was used as a hitching post for horse at the corner of State Street and Broadway. Local historian John J. Birch claimed that the cannon was dug up near the corner of State Street and Nott Terrace, while local historian Larry Hart claimed that the cannon was unearthed in the Stockade, near the corner of Front Street and Ferry Street. The cannon was thought to be of French make, and historians hypothesized that it may have been brought to Schenectady as a trophy of the French and Indian Wars. The cannon is said to have been fired in celebration at the end of the Revolutionary War in 1783. Reverend Dr. B. W. R. Taylor, president of Schenectady's Park Board when the cannon was installed in Riverside Park, said of the cannon, "It has at last found congenial resting place in Riverside Park and directly under the flag which floats from the tall staff adjacent to it. It will never speak again! It is too modest to tell its own history."


This 1970 view of Riverside Park shows the park at a still and silent time. Image from Grems-Doolittle library Photograph Collection. 


Thursday, July 31, 2014

The McWilliam, Parkhill, and Simpson Family Papers


Image from the McWilliam, Parkhill, and Simpson Family Papers in the collections of the Schenectady County Historical Society.  


This blog entry is written by Library Volunteer Jason Thomas.

A new addition to the Schenectady County Historical Society's holdings is the McWilliam, Parkhill, and Simpson Family Papers, 1790-2006. The family papers contain photographs, correspondence, financial records, legal documents, and genealogical resources including family bibles and detailed family histories. The bulk of the material is dated between the 1880s and 1910 and represents material collected by Hawley Bell McWilliam, Sr. The only documents in the collection that date post-1950 are family histories.

Image from the McWilliam, Parkhill, and Simpson Family Papers in the collections of the Schenectady County Historical Society. 


The family story begins when George McWilliam (1749-1812) left the Parish of Whitman in the Shire of Galloway, Scotland, and arrived in America in 1774 with several other Scottish Families. George McWilliam settled on a 114 acre farm in the Charlton-Galway area of New York. He married Mary Millory (1772-1840) and had a son, Robert A. McWilliam (1804-1883). Robert married Jane Ann Wemple, a descendant of the Dutch Wemple family who were a founding family of Schenectady, in 1828. Robert and Jane McWilliam had six children: Mydert Wemple McWilliam (1829-1910); Margaret M. (1831-1837); Elizabeth A. (1833-1888); John McWilliam (1837-1850); Margaret M. (1841-1881); and George McWilliam (1844-?).  Mydert lived on the farm for much of his life but never held active ownership of it as his parents lived until the 1880s. Mydert married Mary E. Bell (?-?) in 1856. Mydert and Mary had two children: Jennie A (1858-?) and Hawley Bell McWilliam (1863-1918). Hawley took over ownership of the farm after the death of his grandfather Robert. He married Alberta Parkhill Simpson (1868-1954) in 1890. Hawley and Alberta had five children: Jennie Louella (1890-); Alberta Cornelia (1892-); Robert S (1894-1894); Hawley Bell Jr. (1907-1967); and Mary Elizabeth (1909-).  Hawley Bell McWilliam Jr. married Florence Young (?-?). The marriage did not result in any children and the McWilliam family name died out with Hawley’s death in 1967. The family farm was sold in 1968.

Click here for a complete finding aid for the McWilliam, Parkhill, and Simpson Family Papers.